Essay On Polio
Outline of Essay:
- Origin and History of Polio
- Causes of Polio
- Symptoms and Diagnosis of Polio
- Types of Polio
- Treatment and Vaccination of Polio
- Prevention From Polio
Poliomyelitis (polio) is a highly infectious disease caused by the poliovirus. It impacts both children and adults of all ages, across geographic boundaries. Polio is still present in some parts of Asia, Africa, and the Middle East, however, it has been eradicated from many other parts of the world due to advances in preventative measures and immunization.
Origin and History of Polio
Polio has been around since ancient times, causing paralysis in children and adults alike for centuries. It was first recognized by the Greek physician Hippocrates in the 5th century BC and then by Michael Underwood in 1789. In 1908, an Austrian scientist named Karl Landsteiner identified the poliovirus as the cause of the disease.
Causes of Polio
The polio virus is a contagious virus that can spread through contact with an infected person’s saliva, mucus, or feces. It enters the body through the mouth and multiplies in the intestine and throat, before spreading to other parts of the body. In some cases, it can cause paralysis if it travels to the brain or spinal cord.
Symptoms and Diagnosis of Polio
The onset of polio is usually sudden with fever, headache, vomiting, fatigue, and pain in the limbs being common symptoms. In some cases, it can cause paralysis as well as respiratory problems. The diagnosis of polio includes laboratory tests such as virus culture and antibody tests, as well as physical exams.
Types of Polio
There are three main types of polio: paralytic, non-paralytic, and bulbar polio.
Paralytic Polio: This is the most severe form of polio, causing paralysis of various muscles, including those in the legs, arms, and face. Paralytic Polio is a disease that attacks the nervous system and can cause irreversible paralysis.
It is caused by a virus that spreads through contact with infected feces or respiratory secretions. Though now largely eradicated thanks to vaccination efforts, this disease had a major impact on the world before modern medicine. It was not uncommon to see children and young adults in iron lungs, which worked to help them breathe when the disease had paralyzed them from the neck down.
Non-Paralytic Polio: Also known as aseptic meningitis, this type of polio causes fever and neck pain with no noticeable muscle weakness. While paralytic polio is the more severe and debilitating form, non-paralytic polio can still cause a great deal of discomfort and distress for those who contract it.
Symptoms of non-paralytic polio can include fever, sore throat, headache, vomiting, and fatigue, among others. Despite its less severe presentation, non-paralytic polio is still a cause for concern and should be taken seriously.
Bulbar Polio: Bulbar Polio is a strain of the poliovirus that attacks the central nervous system and can result in severe neurological deficits. This particular strain affects the muscles responsible for swallowing and breathing, which can be life-threatening. The symptoms of Bulbar Polio can include difficulty breathing, swallowing, and speaking, as well as a weakened gag reflex and facial paralysis.
Treatment and Vaccination of Polio
Treatment for Polio: There is no cure for polio, but it can be treated with physical therapy to help improve mobility and muscle strength. Additionally, medications such as pain relievers, muscle relaxants, and antispasmodic agents may be prescribed to manage symptoms. In some cases, a ventilator or respirator may be needed to help with breathing.
Discovery of Vaccine: The polio vaccine was developed in the 1950s by Dr. Jonas Salk, who led a team of scientists at the University of Pittsburgh to develop a successful injection against the virus. In 1953, the first large-scale field trials of the vaccine were conducted in five American cities and over 1 million children participated in this study. In 1955, the vaccine was declared safe and effective for use.
Vaccination Schedule: It is recommended that children receive the polio vaccine in a series of four doses; the first dose at 2 months, followed by additional doses at 4 months, 6-18 months, and 4-6 years. The vaccine is given orally or by injection, depending on what type you are using.
Vaccines have been developed that are highly effective in preventing the disease. Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is recommended for use in both children and adults and is available free of charge from most healthcare providers. Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) is also available, though it is no longer recommended for use in the United States.
Prevention of Polio
The best way to prevent polio is to get vaccinated, as this will protect against the virus. It is also important to practice good hygiene such as washing your hands regularly and avoiding contact with those who are infected. Additionally, it is recommended that travelers to areas where polio is still present get booster shots before their trip.
Why is polio harmful?
Polio can be a very serious and disabling condition. It can lead to paralysis, muscle weakness, difficulty breathing, mental handicaps, and even death in some cases. It is important to get vaccinated against the virus to help protect yourself and your family from this dangerous disease.
What are 5 facts about polio?
- Polio is an infection caused by a virus that affects the spinal cord and nerve cells in the brain, resulting in paralysis or even death.
- It can be spread from person to person through contact with infected feces, saliva, or respiratory secretions.
- Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is available in the United States and is recommended for both children and adults.
- Polio has been eradicated from most of the world, but it still exists in a few countries including Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria.
- There is no cure for polio, but physical therapy can help improve muscle strength and mobility.
How does polio spread?
Polio is spread through contact with an infected person’s saliva, feces, or respiratory secretions. It can be spread by direct contact with these body fluids, or by indirect contact such as sharing utensils or food contaminated by the virus. It can also be spread through water or food that has been contaminated by human feces containing the virus. Additionally, mosquitoes can spread the virus from one person to another. Therefore, it is important to practice good hygiene and avoid contact with those who are infected to help prevent the spread of polio.
What was polio’s old name?
Polio was formerly known as infantile paralysis. The name polio comes from the Greek word “poli,” which means grey, and refers to the gray matter of the spinal cord being affected by the virus.
Download the Pdf of the Essay On Polio
Read More Essays: